Where is Bcl-2 found?
BCL-2 is a 26 kDa protein, located on the outer membrane of the mitochondria, but also found on the ER membrane and the nuclear envelope . Although it shares structural similarities with BCL-XL, important differences were observed in healthy cells regarding the mechanisms by which BAK and BAX are restrained.
Is BCL2 pro or anti-apoptotic?
The Bcl-2 family is the best characterized protein family involved in the regulation of apoptotic cell death, consisting of anti-apoptotic and pro-apoptotic members. Thus, the Bcl-2 family of proteins acts as a critical life-death decision point within the common pathway of apoptosis.
What is the structure of Bcl-2?
The overall structure of Bcl-2(1) consists of two central, predominately hydrophobic helices (helix 5 and 6) packed against four amphipathic α-helices (Fig. 2). Helix 1 (residues 11–24) is connected to helix 2 (residues 93–108) by a shortened artificial loop derived from Bcl-xL.
What cancer is BCL2?
A role for Bcl2 in cancer was first identified more than 20 years ago in follicular lymphoma, where it is involved in the t(14;18) chromosome translocation, placing Bcl2 under the control of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain promoter resulting in its deregulated high level of expression [9, 10].
Is Bcl-2 a tumor suppressor?
Bcl-2 is widely believed to be an apoptosis suppressor gene. Overexpression of the protein in cancer cells may block or delay onset of apoptosis, by selecting and maintaining long-living cells and arresting cells in the G0 phase of the cell cycle.
What does Bcl-xL stand for?
B-cell lymphoma-extra large
B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL), encoded by the BCL2-like 1 gene, is a transmembrane molecule in the mitochondria.
Is BCL2 an oncogene or a tumor suppressor?
All anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 homologues seem to function as oncoproteins, and pro-apoptotic BH3-only and Bax-like proteins can act as tumor suppressors (Fig….2.3. Class 3: the pro-apoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family.
|Tumors with frequent numerical changes
|dim 9/45 (20%)
Is Bcl-2 an oncogene or a tumor suppressor?
What are Bcl-2 inhibitors?
A selective inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), with potential pro-apoptotic and antineoplastic activities. Upon administration, Bcl-2 inhibitor BCL201 binds to and inhibits the activity of Bcl-2. This restores apoptotic processes in tumor cells.
What causes Bcl-2 overexpression?
The results suggest that gene amplification and translocation are at least equally common mechanisms causing bcl-2 protein overexpression in DLBCL. Bcl-2 protein overexpression as determined by IHC is associated with poor response to chemotherapy and poor survival.
What does Bcl xL stand for?
How does Bcl-xL work?
Similar to BCL-2, BCL-XL binds to its multidomain proapoptotic counterparts BAX and BAK, hence preventing the formation of lethal pores in the mitochondrial outer membrane, as well as to multiple BH3-only proteins, thus interrupting apical proapoptotic signals.