What types of hypertensive syndromes can occur during pregnancy?

Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy are classified into 4 categories, as recommended by the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy: 1) chronic hypertension, 2) preeclampsia-eclampsia, 3) preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension, and 4) gestational …

What are the fundus changes in a hypertensive?

Hypertensive retinopathy causes vascular constriction of retinal arterioles and typical fundus findings, such as blot hemorrhages, hard exudates and cotton wool spots resulting from ischemia within the nerve fiber layer.

What is a feature of hypertension in pregnancy?

Symptoms can include a headache that doesn’t go away, blurred or double vision, swelling, or making less urine than normal. The goal of treatment is to prevent the condition from getting worse and causing other problems.

What are the triad signs and symptoms of pregnancy induced hypertension?

PIH is diagnosed by a triad of physical signs that include hypertension (high blood pressure), edema (swelling) and proteinuria (protein in the urine). Symptoms may include severe headache, upper abdominal pain, blurred vision and rapid weight gain.

Why does hypertension occur in pregnancy?

There are several possible causes of high blood pressure during pregnancy. These include: being overweight or obese. not getting enough physical activity.

What are signs of hypertensive retinopathy?

The signs include flame shaped hemorrhages at the disc margin, blurred disc margins, congested retinal veins, papilledema, and secondary macular exudates. Hard exudates can deposit in the macula causing a macular star. Optic nerve pallor is also present in patients with chronic hypertension.

Can you recover from hypertensive retinopathy?

In many cases, the damage caused by hypertensive retinopathy can slowly heal if the necessary steps to lower one’s blood pressure are taken. These steps may include making lifestyle changes such as giving up smoking and losing weight, as well as taking medication as prescribed by a doctor.

How can you prevent hypertension during pregnancy?

Some ways to lower the risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy include:

  1. limiting salt intake.
  2. staying hydrated.
  3. eating a balanced diet that is rich in plant-based foods and low in processed foods.
  4. getting regular exercise.
  5. getting regular prenatal checkups.
  6. avoiding smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol.

What is the treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension?

Treatment for pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) may include: bedrest (either at home or in the hospital may be recommended). hospitalization (as specialized personnel and equipment may be necessary). magnesium sulfate (or other antihypertensive medications for PIH).