What is the function of fatty acyl-CoA?

Fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) catalyzes the adenosine triphosphate dependent formation of a thioester bond between a fatty acid and coenzyme A. This fundamental reaction allows the fatty acid to be degraded for energy production, incorporated into complex lipids, or participate in other metabolic pathways.

Which ion presence does activate acyl-CoA synthetase?

This activation step initially involves an acyl-phosphate bond formation between the carboxyl group of the fatty acid and the α-phosphate of ATP. Subsequently a transfer of the fatty acyl group to the sulfhydryl group of coenzyme A occurs thereby releasing AMP.

Where is acyl-CoA synthetase?

Acyl-CoA Synthetase Is Located in the Outer Membrane and Acyl-CoA Thioesterase in the Inner Membrane of Pea Chloroplast Envelopes. Plant Physiol. 1983 Jul;72(3):735-40. doi: 10.1104/pp. 72.3.

What does a Thiokinase do?

A Thiokinase is a ligase that synthesizes CoA Thioesters.

Where does fatty acyl CoA come from?

Fatty acids are activated by reaction with CoA to form fatty acyl CoA. The reaction normally occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum or the outer mitochondrial membrane. This is an ATP-requiring reaction, yielding AMP and pyrophosphate (PPi). Different enzymes are specific for fatty acids of different chain length.

How is fatty acyl CoA formed?

How does Succinyl CoA synthetase work?

Succinyl CoA synthetase catalyzes the following reversible reaction: Succinyl CoA + Pi + NDP ↔ Succinate + CoA + NTP. The enzyme then utilizes a histidine residue to remove the phosphate group from succinyl phosphate and generate succinate.

How is malonyl CoA formed?

Malonyl-CoA is formed by carboxylating acetyl-CoA using the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase. One molecule of acetyl-CoA joins with a molecule of bicarbonate, requiring energy rendered from ATP. Malonyl-CoA is utilised in fatty acid biosynthesis by the enzyme malonyl coenzyme A:acyl carrier protein transacylase (MCAT).

What can acetyl-CoA be converted to?

It can be converted to fatty acids, which in turn give rise to: triglycerides (triacylglycerols) Explore. phospholipids.

What is the function of acyl CoA synthetase 4?

Daniel E. Gomez, … The acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4), which esterify mainly arachidonic acid (AA) into acyl-CoA, is increased in breast, colon and hepatocellular carcinoma.

How does ACSL4 play a role in tumorigenesis?

The transfection of MCF-7 cells with ACSL4 cDNA transforms the cells into a highly aggressive phenotype and controls both lipooxygenase-5 (LOX-5) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) metabolism of AA, suggesting a causal role of ACSL4 in tumorigenesis.

How are LOX and COX-2 regulated by ACSL4?

We found that levels of LOX and COX-2 products of AA are regulated by ACSL4 expression in a breast cancer cell line. Functionally, we found that ACSL4 is part of the mechanism responsible for increased breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and migration [21].

How is ACSL4 regulated in breast cancer cells?

We found that ACSL4 is significantly up-regulated in highly aggressive breast cancer cell lines, manifested as higher mRNA and protein abundance, as compared to less aggressive phenotypes in breast cancer cells.