What is rotatory subluxation?
Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation is a rare condition in which patients present with the acute onset of torticollis. Atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation represents a spectrum of disease from muscle spasm to a fixed mechanical block to reduction of the atlantoaxial complex.
What is subluxation of C1 and C2?
(C1–C2 Subluxation) Atlantoaxial subluxation is misalignment of the 1st and 2nd cervical vertebrae, which may occur only with neck flexion.
What is a rotational CT scan?
Rotational angiography is a medical imaging technique based on x-ray, that allows to acquire CT-like 3D volumes during hybrid surgery or during a catheter intervention using a fixed C-Arm. Synonyms for rotational angiography include flat-panel volume CT and cone-beam CT.
What is atlantoaxial rotatory fixation?
Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is a condition in which the first and second vertebrae of the cervical spine become interlocked in a rotated position. This condition can result in serious consequences and thus have a significant impact on patients, especially when diagnosis and treatment are delayed.
Is subluxation serious?
A subluxation is a condition that is typically only used by chiropractors and experts in the medical field. However, when a subluxation occurs, the entire nervous system can be disrupted, which makes the condition serious.
What are the signs and symptoms of subluxation?
- Pain and swelling around the joint.
- A sensation of joint instability.
- Limited mobility or the loss of range of motion.
- Loss of feeling or numbness (usually temporary)
What causes C1 C2 subluxation?
Rotational subluxation or dislocation of C1 on C2. Can develop from osseous or ligamentous abnormalities resulting from acquired or congenital disorders. As a result of instability, excessive motion and spinal cord compression may occur at the atlantoaxial joint.
Why can injuries at C1 or C2 be fatal?
Severe cases of spinal cord injury at C2 can be fatal because breathing and other critical body functions may be impaired or stop. Paralysis of the body below the injured region of the spinal cord may also occur in some cases.
Will a CT scan show spine problems?
A CT scan of the spine may be performed to assess the spine for a herniated disk, tumors and other lesions, the extent of injuries, structural anomalies such as spina bifida (a type of congenital defect of the spine), blood vessel malformations, or other conditions, particularly when another type of examination, such …
How do you test for atlantoaxial subluxation?
The patient is asked to slowly flex the head performing a slight cervical nod, at the same time the examiner presses posteriorly on the patient’s forehead. A sliding motion of the head in relation to the axis indicates atlantoaxial instability.
What is Grisel’s syndrome?
Grisel’s syndrome involves the subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint from inflammatory ligamentous laxity following an infectious process. Even though it was first described in 1830, it is a rare disease usually affecting children, but infrequent adult cases do occur.
What are the diagnostic criteria for rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation?
Rotatory atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare entity. The diagnostic criteria have been described using plain radiography. With the widespread use of CT, it has become evident that considerable rotation and loss of contact of the C1-C2 articulations occurs physiologically, and this diagnosis will need to be reevaluated.
What causes rotational subluxation of C1 on C2?
Description: Rotational subluxation or dislocation of C1 on C2 Can develop from osseous or ligamentous abnormalities resulting from acquired or congenital disorders. As a result of instability, excessive motion and spinal cord compression may occur at the atlantoaxial joint.
How is the head oriented in a vertical subluxation?
In a vertical subluxation, the dens is often above the McGregor line by over 8 mm in men and 9.7 mm in women. On CT, C1 is not oriented in line with the head. The head may be pointed anteriorly, C1 is turned.
What kind of screws are used for rotary subluxation?
One method utilizes C1 lateral mass and C2 pars screws. (Hedequist, Spine 2008) Other options include C1-2 transarticular screws or sublaminar wiring. Instrumentation can be supplemented with halo vest immobilization. [Figure 3]