What is p14ARF?

p14ARF (p19Arf in mice) is a 14kDa (19 kDa) protein predominantly localized in the nucleolus. It blocks the cell cycle in both G1 and G2 phases and inhibits the growth of incipient cancer cells by indirectly activating p53. It also inhibits ribosomal RNA processing and interacts with topoisomerase I.

Is P14 an oncogene?

P14ARF is a tumor suppressor encoded by the CDKN2a locus that is frequently inactivated in human tumors. P14ARF protein quenches oncogene stimuli by inhibiting cell cycle progression and inducing apoptosis. P14ARF functions can be played through interactions with several proteins.

How does p16 cause cancer?

p16 is a major target in carcinogenesis, rivaled in frequency only by the p53 tumor-suppressor gene. Its mechanism of action as a CDKI has been elegantly elucidated and involves binding to and inactivating the cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (or 6) complex, and thus renders the retinoblastoma protein inactive.

What do oncogenes cause?

An oncogene is any gene that causes cancer. One of the main characteristics of cancer is uncontrolled cell growth. Because proto-oncogenes are involved in the process of cell growth, they can turn into oncogenes when a mutation (error) permanently activates the gene.

What is ARF function?

ARF is a nucleolar protein with unusual structure that exhibits tumor suppressive functions. There is growing evidence that ARF signaling is complex, and involves p53-dependent or -independent pathways aiming mainly at restraining abnormal cell growth and at maintaining genomic stability.

Is p53 good or bad?

p53, famously dubbed ‘The Guardian of the Genome’, is arguably the most significant gene for cancer suppression. Somatic loss of function of p53 underpins tumor progression in most epithelial cancers and many others besides.

Do humans have the p16 gene?

In humans, p16 is encoded by the CDKN2A gene, located on chromosome 9 (9p21. 3). This gene generates several transcript variants that differ in their first exons.

Do we all have oncogenes?

However, all humans have proto-oncogenes. They are normal genes that could become an oncogene due to mutations or increased expression. Proto-oncogenes code for proteins that help to regulate cell growth and differentiation.