What is meant by functionally graded materials?

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are novel materials whose properties change gradually with respect to their dimensions. FGMs have obtained a great attention of researchers in the past decade due to their graded properties at every single point in various dimensions.

How the functionally graded materials are classified?

Functionally graded materials can be divided into two broad groups namely: thin and bulk FGM. Thin FGM are relatively thin sections or thin surface coating, while the bulk FGM are volume of materials which require more labour intensive processes.

What is functionally graded structure?

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are composite materials where the concentration, shape, and orientation of constituent phases vary in one or more directions optimizing the performance (an example of a functionally graded ceramic-metal material is shown in Fig. 1).

Where are functionally graded materials used?

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been developed as ultrahigh temperature resistant materials for aircraft, space vehicles and other engineering applications. Most of FGMs are particle reinforced FGMs and their compositions depend on position.

What is FGM plate?

Abstract: A four-noded finite element of a moderately thick plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) is presented. The base element is rectangular and can be extended to any shape using a transformation based on NURBS functions.

What is FGM in materials science?

A functionally graded material (FGM) is a two-component composite characterised by a compositional gradient from one component to the other. In contrast, traditional composites are homogeneous mixtures, and they therefore involve a compromise between the desirable properties of the component materials.

What is composite materials and application of composite materials?

A composite material is a combination of two materials with different physical and chemical properties. When they are combined they create a material which is specialised to do a certain job, for instance to become stronger, lighter or resistant to electricity. They can also improve strength and stiffness.

Which am process is capable of making functionally gradient material?

The materials can be designed for specific function and applications. Various approaches based on the bulk (particulate processing), preform processing, layer processing and melt processing are used to fabricate the functionally graded materials.

What are the advantages of composite materials?

Other key advantages include:

  • As molded dimensional accuracy. Tight tolerance, repeatable moldings.
  • Chemical Resistance.
  • Consolidated Parts and Function.
  • Corrosion Resistance.
  • Design Flexibility.
  • Durable.
  • High Flexural Modulus to Carry Demanding Loads. High Impact Strength.
  • High Performance at Elevated Temperatures.

What are the 3 main categories of composite materials?

There are three main types of composite matrix materials:

  • Ceramic matrix – Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) are a subgroup of composite materials.
  • Metal matrix – Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are composite materials that contain at least two constituent parts – a metal and another material or a different metal.

What are the types of additive manufacturing?

7 Types of Additive Manufacturing

  • VAT Photopolymerisation. VAT Photopolymerisation is also known as stereolithography.
  • Material Jetting.
  • Binder Jetting.
  • Material Extrusion.
  • Powder Bed Fusion.
  • Sheet Lamination.
  • Directed Energy Deposition.

Is composite better than aluminum?

Composites are stronger than aluminum and are flexible, while aluminum is malleable it cannot take back its original shape once it has been modified. Composite material will bend significantly and still maintain its shape.

Which is an example of a functionally graded material?

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are novel materials whose properties change gradually with respect to their dimensions. It is the advanced development of formerly used composite materials and consists of two or more materials in order to achieve the desired properties according to the application where an FGM is used.

When did Functionally Graded Materials ( FGMs ) start?

Although the FGMs had their beginnings in the mid-1980s, the real launch was in the early 1990s, and published papers on FGMs continued to increase as shown in Fig. 5. The methods of FGM production were first categorized according to the mixture of components, such as metal/metal, metal/ceramic, ceramic/ceramic, and ceramic/polymer.

Why are functionally graded materials used in space?

These graded materials were first designed to reduce thermal stress due to the high temperature of the metal and ceramic interfaces for the Japanese space shuttle project in 1983 as shown in Fig. 1 [ 13 ]. The design and function of FGM can differ internally and externally according to the desired composition and structure [ 14 ].

What are the properties of heat resistant FGMs?

In the heat-resistant FGMs which contain particles (ceramics) in the matrix (metal), the matrix will be subjected to plastic deformation, particles will be debonded, and finally cracks will be generated. In the past many studies of FGMs, a macroscopic combination law has been adopted to express the material properties.