What is intra-abdominal infection?

Intra-abdominal infection (IAI) describes a diverse set of diseases. It is broadly defined as peritoneal inflammation in response to microorganisms, resulting in purulence in the peritoneal cavity[1]. IAI are classified as uncomplicated or complicated based on the extent of infection[2].

How is intra-abdominal infection treated?

Patients with severe community-acquired intra-abdominal infection should be treated empirically with antimicrobial regimens that have broad-spectrum activity against gram-negative organisms, such as meropenem (Merrem), imipenem/cilastatin (Primaxin), doripenem (Doribax), or piperacillin/tazobactam (Zosyn) as single …

What causes intra-abdominal infection?

Intra-abdominal infection (IAI) is a broad term that encompasses a number of infectious processes, including peritonitis, diverticulitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis, and pancreatitis. A common cause of IAI is appendicitis.

What is the most common intra-abdominal infection?

Acute appendicitis is the most common intra-abdominal condition requiring emergency surgery. Acute appendicitis is the most common intra-abdominal condition requiring emergency surgery.

Where is the intra-abdominal area?

What is an intra-abdominal abscess? An intra-abdominal abscess is a collection of pus or infected fluid that is surrounded by inflamed tissue inside the belly. It can involve any abdominal organ. Or it can settle in the folds of the bowel.

What are the intra-abdominal organs?

Intraperitoneal organs include the stomach, spleen, liver, first and fourth parts of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, transverse, and sigmoid colon.

How is IAP calculated?

IAP can be measured directly or indirectly.

  1. Direct measurement is obtained via a needle or catheter in the peritoneal space, and IAP is measured using a fluid column or pressure transducer system.
  2. IAP is usually measured indirectly via the patient’s bladder.

What is intra-abdominal mass?

An abdominal mass is an abnormal growth in the abdomen. An abdominal mass causes visible swelling and may change the shape of the abdomen. A person with an abdominal mass may notice weight gain and symptoms such as abdominal discomfort, pain, and bloating.

What bacteria cause intra-abdominal infections?

Nearly all intra-abdominal infections are caused by multiple microorganisms that constitute the intestinal flora (aerobes and facultative and obligate anaerobes, with Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci and Bacteroides fragilis isolated most frequently).

What are the symptoms of abdominal infection?

What are the symptoms of an intra-abdominal abscess?

  • Fever.
  • Belly pain.
  • Chest pain or shoulder pain.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Nausea and vomiting.
  • Change in bowel movements.
  • Rectal tenderness or fullness.
  • Mass in the belly.

Where is the abdominal?

The abdomen (commonly called the belly) is the body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis. The diaphragm forms the upper surface of the abdomen. At the level of the pelvic bones, the abdomen ends and the pelvis begins.

What is intra-abdominal pressure?

Intra-abdominal pressure — Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is the steady state pressure concealed within the abdominal cavity [1]. For most critically ill patients, an IAP of 5 to 7 mmHg is considered normal.