What are the four faces of face negotiation theory?
Specifically, the theoretical formulation of the four faces of face first introduced by Ting-Toomey – face-restoration (self autonomy), face-saving (other autonomy), face-giving (other inclusion) and face-assertion (self inclusion) are used to discuss how they affect mediators.
What is face negotiation theory examples?
Examples of Face Negotiation Theory Individualistic people become more aggressive and progress oriented in conflicting situations. They try to protect themselves and dominate or compete in times of trouble. Unlike it, collectivist people show their cultural characteristics in hard times.
Why is face negotiation theory important?
Relationships base the life of every individual as humans are social beings. But conflicts are inevitable being in a relationship. The face negotiation theory explains how cultural difference in people influence in managing conflicts.
Is face negotiated through communication?
A Face-Negotiation Theory perspective stresses the impact of culture on the situated meaning of face and the enactment of facework. Thus, the theory assumes that: Communication in all cultures is based on maintaining and negotiating face. Face is problematic when identities are questioned.
What are the three face needs?
Goffman identified three types of face. These are fellowship face, competence face, and autonomy face. Fellowship face is the need to have others like and accept you. This liking and acceptance shows that we have the ability to get along well with others, which is important for succeeding in a society.
What is self face?
The self-face is the unique representation of oneself, and it has a processing advantage over familiar faces and the faces of strangers. Generally, recognition of the self-face is significantly faster or more accurate in a variety of tasks compared with recognizing others’ faces.
What is an example of face work?
At the beginning of an interaction, individuals may work to present a certain identity to another via face-constituting or face-building whereby they set out to present a certain aspect of an identity that they wish other persons to accept. For example, suppose someone wants others to view her as a serious student.
What are the three types of face concern?
This theory emphasizes three face concerns; self- face, other-face and mutual-face. Self-face is the concern for the individual’s own image, other face is the concern for the other’s image and mutual-face is concern for both parties’ images.
Who devised face theory?
Perhaps the most influential researcher who defined the concept of face was Erving Goffman. Face, according to Goffman (1956), is ”the positive social value a person effectively claims for himself by the line others assume he has taken during a particular contact” (p. 268).
How do I get positive face needs?
Appealing to positive face needs occurs through slightly different linguistic and paralinguistic techniques. Compliments, minimal response, eye contact, politeness markers and the use of interrogatives are all ways in which one can appeal to another’s positive face needs.
What is competent face?
Competence face is the need to be respected and viewed as competent and intelligent. This need also demands that others acknowledge our abilities and intelligence. It is competence face needs that provoke us to seek careers in something we’re good at and to avoid embarrassing situations.
What are the 2 faces of every self define each face?
Two faces of the self: Actor-self perspective and observer-self perspective are differentially related to agency versus communion.