## Can a fully developed flow be turbulent?

The entry length of a turbulent flow is much shorter than that of a laminar flow, J. Nikuradse determined that a fully developed profile for turbulent flow can be observed after an entry length of 25 to 40 diameters.

### What is a fully developed laminar and turbulent flow?

When a flow is fully developed it will have the same velocity profile at any cross-section within the pipe. This statement is true for both laminar flow and turbulent flow. For example, by using the velocity profile the pressure drops, flow rates, and head loss can be determined. …

**What is fully developed flow describe process of flow development in a laminar flow?**

In fully developed laminar flow, each fluid particle moves at a constant axial velocity along a streamline and the velocity profile u(r) remains unchanged in the flow direction. There is no motion in the radial direction, and thus the velocity component in the direction normal to flow is everywhere zero.

**How would the fully developed velocity profile differ for turbulent flow?**

In case of laminar flow, the velocity profile in the fully developed region is parabolic but in the case of turbulent flow it gets a little flatter due to vigorous mixing in radial direction and eddy motion. The velocity profile remains unchanged in the fully developed region.

## Can a flow be developing Hydrodynamically and be thermally fully developed?

In a thermally fully developed flow, the temperature profile will no longer change along the length of flow, Similarly the velocity profile.It means that there is no further growth of boundary layer. If the flow is fully developed (Hydrodynamic and thermal),it means that steady state is reached .

### Which type of flow is controlled by Reynolds number?

laminar flow occurs at low Reynolds numbers, where viscous forces are dominant, and is characterized by smooth, constant fluid motion; turbulent flow occurs at high Reynolds numbers and is dominated by inertial forces, which tend to produce chaotic eddies, vortices and other flow instabilities.

**How the Reynolds number affects the flow?**

The Reynolds number (Re) helps predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations. At low Reynolds numbers, flows tend to be dominated by laminar (sheet-like) flow, while at high Reynolds numbers flows tend to be turbulent. Reynolds numbers are an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics.

**What is the entrance length for this Reynolds number?**

The value of Reynolds number is greater than 4000, so this is turbulent flow, and the entrance length can be estimated from the equation: Le/D = 4.4 Re1/6.

## Why is laminar flow important?

It is the smooth flow of a fluid over a surface. Though a boundary layer of air “sticks” to a wing, the air overtop should be moving quickly and smoothly to reduce friction drag. Engineers want to design aircraft with laminar flow over their wings to make them more aerodynamic and efficient.

### Does turbulence increase with velocity?

Alternatively, at a given perfusion pressure, turbulence leads to a decrease in flow. As can be seen in this equation, Re increases as velocity increases, and decreases as viscosity increases. Because higher velocities enhance turbulence, murmurs intensify as flow increases.

**What makes a fully developed turbulent flow different from a laminar flow?**

This results in the velocity profile to be different from laminar flows. Many answers have listed that the gradients for fully developed turbulent flows are steeper at the walls, followed by flattening or plug flow like profile away from the walls or boundaries. This is a result of the enhanced viscosity.

**How is the entrance length of laminar flow calculated?**

This is because the curve will disrupt the velocity profile of the fluid. As a result, it will need to travel a certain distance in a straight pipe to become fully developed again. Refer to equation 5 to calculate the entrance length for laminar flow, and equation 6 to calculate the entrance length for turbulent flow.

## When was fluid velocity profile development for turbulent flow?

Okiishi, Theodore Hisao, “Fluid velocity profile development for turbulent flow in smooth annuli ” (1965). Retrospective Theses and Dissertations. 3279.

### Are there any current research on turbulent flow?

The fully developed laminar-, transition-, and turbulent-flow cases have been investigated extensively for various annulus configurations.^ However, there exists a definite scarcity of research on constant-area annulus-inlet flow. The author could find no evidence of previous research, either experimental or