What is the morphology of Plasmodium falciparum?
falciparum are elongated and crescent-shaped, by which they are sometimes identified. A mature gametocyte is 8–12 μm long and 3–6 μm wide. The ookinete is also elongated measuring about 18–24 μm. An oocyst is rounded and can grow up to 80 μm in diameter.
What is the morphology of Plasmodium?
|Key Morphological Differences Between Human Plasmodium Species in Blood Smears|
|numerous rings smaller rings no trophozoites or schizonts cresent-shaped gametocytes||enlarged erythrocyte Schüffner’s dots ‘ameboid’ trophozoite||compact parasite merozoites in rosette|
What causes antigenic variation of the malaria parasite?
Adherence of infected erythrocytes to venular endothelium selects for antigenic variants of Plasmodium falciparum. Rapid switching to multiple antigenic and adhesive phenotypes in malaria.
What is an example of antigenic variation?
Examples of random antigenic variation are those that occur in viruses such as the influenza virus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The major antigenic components of these viruses are glycoproteins that make up their viral coat.
What is the treatment of Plasmodium falciparum?
For P. falciparum infections acquired in areas with chloroquine resistance, four treatment options are available. These include artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem™), which is the preferred option if readily available, and atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone™).
Where is P. falciparum found?
P. falciparum, which is found worldwide in tropical and subtropical areas, and especially in Africa where this species predominates. P. falciparum can cause severe malaria because it multiples rapidly in the blood, and can thus cause severe blood loss (anemia).
What does Plasmodium falciparum look like?
P. falciparum gametocytes are crescent or sausage shaped. The chromatin is in a single mass (macrogamete) or diffuse (microgamete). Gametocytes in a thick blood smear.
How does antigenic variation occur?
Antigenic variation can occur by altering a variety of surface molecules including proteins and carbohydrates. Antigenic variation can result from gene conversion, site-specific DNA inversions, hypermutation, or recombination of sequence cassettes.
How does Plasmodium falciparum evade the immune system?
As malaria parasites mature within blood cells, they become more recognisable by the immune system as intruders. But the parasites have evolved ways to evade the immune response, such as by producing sticky molecules on infected red blood cells that allow them to bury themselves in tiny blood vessels.
Is antigenic variation random?
Antigenic Variation Caused by Random Events Examples of random antigenic variation are those that occur in viruses such as the influenza virus and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Is Plasmodium falciparum curable?
Malaria disease can be categorized as uncomplicated or severe (complicated). In general, malaria is a curable disease if diagnosed and treated promptly and correctly. All the clinical symptoms associated with malaria are caused by the asexual erythrocytic or blood stage parasites.