What is Sutherland differential association theory?

The differential association is a theory proposed by Sutherland in 1939. It explains that people learn to become offenders from their environment. Through interactions with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, methods and motives for criminal behaviour.

What is the concept of differential association theory?

Differential association is a crime predictive theory. The theory holds that, criminal behavior is learned in the same way that law-abiding values are learned, and that, this learning activity is accomplished, in interactions with others, and the situational definitions we place on the values.

How many principles were explained in the differential association theory by Edwin Sutherland?

Sutherland’s Nine Points The principles of Sutherland’s theory of differential association can be summarized into nine key points. Criminal behavior is learned. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication.

What is the example of differential association theory?

A person becomes a criminal because of frequent criminal patterns. For example, if one is exposed to a repeated criminal scenario, this scenario will eventually rub off on others nearby. The differential association theory can differ in frequency, duration, priority and intensity.

What are the 3 characteristics of differential association theory?

Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity. The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning.

What are some of the basic principles of differential association?

In criminology, differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior. It grows socially easier for the individuals to commit a crime.

What are the elements of differential association theory?

In criminology, differential association is a theory developed by Edwin Sutherland proposing that through interaction with others, individuals learn the values, attitudes, techniques, and motives for criminal behavior.

What are the 9 principles of differential association theory?

Nine Propositions of Differential Association Theory All criminal behavior is learned. Criminal behavior is learned through interactions with others via a process of communication. Most learning about criminal behavior happens in intimate personal groups and relationships.

What is wrong with differential association theory?

Criticism of Sutherland’s Differential Association theory includes the assumption that Sutherland was suggesting the mere interaction with criminals would lead an individual to criminal behavior. They disregarded Sutherland’s view that criminal behavior was learned in primary reference groups.

What does Edwin Sutherland’s theory of differential association assume?

Edwin Sutherland’s theory of differential association assumes that criminal behavior is learned through contact with individuals who are themselves criminal. It is therefore also called the “theory of differential contacts”.

When was differential association theory introduced in criminology?

Sutherland initially outlined his theory in 1939 in the third edition of his book Principles of Criminology. He then revised the theory for the fourth edition of the book in 1947. Since then, differential association theory has remained popular in the field of criminology and has sparked a great deal of research.

How does Sutherland’s learning theory relate to crime?

Despite this, Sutherland’s crime-related learning theory has to struggle with the accusation of partial tautology, since the existence of delinquency must already exist for it to be passed on at all.

When did Burgess and Akers expand on differential association theory?

After Sutherland passed away, the Differential Association theory was most notably expanded upon by sociologist Burgess and Akers in 1968. Burgess and Akers called their theory the Differential- Reinforcement theory. They disregarded Sutherland’s view that criminal behavior was learned in primary reference groups.