What is non-coding RNA associated gene silencing?

A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is a functional RNA molecule that is transcribed from DNA but not translated into proteins. Both major groups are shown to play a role in heterochromatin formation, histone modification, DNA methylation targeting, and gene silencing.

How do non-coding RNA regulate gene expression?

Gene regulation by lncRNAs. Gene expression is regulated by lncRNAs at multiple levels. By interacting with DNA, RNA and proteins, lncRNAs can modulate chromatin structure and function and the transcription of neighbouring and distant genes, and affect RNA splicing, stability and translation.

What is non silencing siRNA?

siRNA Transfection: Gene silencing by RNA Interference (RNAi) is a powerful research tool for studying gene function in mammalian cells. RNAi is a biological phenomenon by which double stranded RNA (dsRNA) specifically reduces gene expression of its corresponding gene.

What is RNA gene silencing?

RNA silencing or RNA interference refers to a family of gene silencing effects by which gene expression is negatively regulated by non-coding RNAs such as microRNAs. RNA silencing may also be defined as sequence-specific regulation of gene expression triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).

What is the use of non-coding RNA?

The main function of miRNAs is to down-regulate gene expression. The ncRNA RNase P has also been shown to influence gene expression. In the human nucleus RNase P is required for the normal and efficient transcription of various ncRNAs transcribed by RNA polymerase III.

What are examples of non-coding RNA?

Abundant and functionally important types of non-coding RNAs include transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), as well as small RNAs such as microRNAs, siRNAs, piRNAs, snoRNAs, snRNAs, exRNAs, scaRNAs and the long ncRNAs such as Xist and HOTAIR.

What are some functions for non-coding DNA?

Other functions of non-coding DNA include the transcriptional and translational regulation of protein-coding sequences, scaffold attachment regions, origins of DNA replication, centromeres and telomeres. Its RNA counterpart is non-coding RNA. The amount of non-coding DNA varies greatly among species.

How is RNA used for gene silencing?

RNA interference (RNAi) is a natural process used by cells to regulate gene expression. The genes can be silenced by siRNA molecules that cause the endonucleatic cleavage of the target mRNA molecules or by miRNA molecules that suppress translation of the mRNA molecule.

What are the components of RNAi gene silencing?

42. 42 There are five component for siRNAs generation 1. Dicer 2. Short hair pin RNA (shRNA ) 3. RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) 4. Argonaute (Ago) 5. RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP) Main component of RNAi machinery for shRNA generation 26/9/2016 44. RNA Gene-silencing constructs commonly used in plant genetic modification 26/9/2016 44 45.

How is antisense RNA used in gene silencing?

Post transcriptional gene silencing • Anti sense RNA technology: • Antisense RNA has the opposite sense to m RNA. • The presence of complimentary sense and antisense RNA in the in the same cell can lead to the formation of a stable duplex which interferes with gene expression at the level of RNA processing or possible translation.

What is the short history of gene silencing?

Short history of gene silencing 5.  The discovery of the mechanism of RNA interference by ds RNA by prof. Andrew Fire and prof. Craig Mello in 1998, gave them the Nobel prize in 2006.  HOW does it works? 1. This is accomplished by binding a specific strand of RNA to an existing m-RNA strand.

How does the siRNA work in gene silencing?

The siRNA unwinds.  The unwound siRNA base pairs with complementary mRNA, thus guiding the RNAi machinery to the target mRNA.  The target m RNA is effectively cleaved and subsequently degraded – resulting in gene silencing.